All perception is composed of a set of qualities. This is known as gunas, which are 10 pairs of opposing characteristics. Everything is made up of these traits, be it a feeling or the doshas themselves! The basis of Ayurveda includes the ability to understand which guna(s) constitute what.
The 20 gunas are as follows:
The five elements aka panchamahabutas have these properties as well. For example, the earth is hard and rough while fire is sharp and dry.
Although these are the most popularized gunas, scholars say there are more; perhaps an unlimited amount…
Source: Kumar A, Dubey S. D, Prakas S, Singh P. Principle of Dravyaguna (Ayurvedic Pharmacology). Biomed Pharmacol J 2011;4(1)